FOURTH MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL ON LETHAL YELLOWING

Fort Lauderdale August 13-17, 1979

Edited by D.L.Thomas, F.W. Howard & H.M. Donselman

Published for the International Council on Lethal Yellowing by the

Agricultural Research Center, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Lauderdale (1980) Publication FL-80-1



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface - W. B. Ennis, Jr (page 1)
Technical Summary of the Fourth Meeting of ICLY - S. J. Eden-Green (page 1)
An Evaluation of Lethal Yellowing Research Progress and Priorities - P. Hunt (page 3)

INTRODUCTORY SESSION

Cocos Palm as a World Crop - L. Chiarappa and P. Poetiray (page 5)
Growing Plantation Coconut Palms (Abstract) - D. H. Romney (page 6)
Florida's Palms - Who Needs Them? (Abstract) - H. M. Donselman (page 6)

SESSION I - BASIC BIOLOGY OF YELLOWS DISEASES

Insect Vectors of Prokaryotic Plant Pathogens - A. H. Purcell (page 7)
Lethal Yellowing and Translocation in Palms - M. H. Zimmermann (page 7)
Current Status of Spiroplasmas and Mycoplasmas Isolated from Plants and lnsects - T. A. Chen (page 7)

SESSION II - DISEASE DIAGNOSIS

An Approach to the Serological Study of the Mycoplasmas of Lethal Yellowing in the Coconuts in West Africa - M.Do!let, C. Saillard, 0.Garcia-Jurado, J. C. Vignault, D. Gargant, J. G. Tully and M. Bovett (page 8)
Xylem Transport in Palms with Lethal Yellowing - H. G. Basham and F. M. Eskafi (page 8)
Phloem Ultrastructure of Palms with Lethal Yellowing - D. L. Thomas (page 8)
Rapid Propagation of Date Palms through Tissue Culture - B. H. Tisserat (page 8)
Isozymes as Genetic Markers in Palmae - B. H. Tísserat (page 9)
The Distribution of Spiroplasmas within Infected Plants Varies During the Course of lnfection - D. B. Archer, J. Best and K A. Plaskitt (page 9)
Scanning Electron Microscopy of Aster Yellows Spiroplasmas - K. Maramorosch (page 9)

SESSION III - MYCOPLASMA ISOLATION AND CULTURE

The Acholeplasmas: Biological Characteristics and New Developments in Host Distribution - J. G. Tully (p. 10)
Acholeplasmas and Lethal Yellowing Disease - I. Present Status - S. J. Eden-Green, J. G. Tully & R. Townsend (page 10)
Acholeplasmas and Lethal Yellowing Disease - II. Transmission Experiments - S. J. Eden-Green, P. G. Markham & R.Townsend (page 10)
Acholeplasmas and Lethal Yellowing Disease - III. Microbiological and Serological Studies - R. Townsend, S. J. Eden-Green, P. G. Markham, D. B. Archer and M. F. Clark (page 11)
Isolation and Characterization of Mycoplasmas from Floral Surfaces - R. E. McCoy and H. G. Basham (page 11)
ELISA for the Detection of Lethal Yellowing Agent in Diseased Coconuts - S.F. Nomé, B.C. Raju & G. Nylan (page 11)
Multiplication of Spiroplasmas in Larvae of the Wax Moth,
Galieria mellonella (L.) - R. E. McCoy & M. J. Davis (page 12)
Effect of Spiroplasmas on Growth Rate and Survival of Wax Moth larvae - R. V. Dowell & R. E. McCoy (page 12)
Isolation of Spiroplasmas from Leafhoppers Exposed to Aster Yellows and X Disease - B.C. Raju, A. H. Purcell and G. Nyland (page 12)
Long Term Storage of the Aster Yellows Agent in Frozen lnsects - A. J. Smith. (page 12)
Factors Affecting Maintenance in vitro of Aster Yellows Pathogenicity - A. J. Smith (page 12)

SESSION IV – VECTORS

Homopterans Feeding on Coconut Palms in Jamaica - F. M. Eskafi (page 13)
Attempts to Transmit Coconut lethal Yellowing Disease with Palm-Feeding Fulgoroidea in Jamaica, 1977-79 - A.J.Dabek & H. Waters (page 13)
Attempts to Transmit Coconut Lethal Yellowing Disease with Cicadelloidea in Jamaica, 1977-79 - A. J. Dabek & H.Waters (page 13)
Lethal Yellowing Transmission Experiments with
Myndus crudus Van Duzee - F. W. Howard (page 13)
The Leafhopper
Macrosteles fascifrons as a Host but Non-vector of X Disease Agent - A.H. Purcell, J. Richardson and A. Finlay (page 14)
Progress In Search for Lethal Yellowing Vector(s) - J. H. Tsai (page 14)
Symptoms Produced by Plants In Response to Injection - A. S. Alivizatos and R. Townsend (page 14)
Population Studios of
Myndus crudus Van Duzee in Florida - F. W. Howard (page 15)

SESSION V – CONTROL

Foliar Insecticide Applications Reduce Spread of Palm Lethal Decline - F. W. Howard (page 15)
The Probable Origin of Lethal Yellowing and its Co-identity with Other Wilt Diseases of Coconut - L. Chiarappa (page 15)
Did Lethal Yellowing Disease Originate in Malaysia? - K. Maramorosch. (page 15)
Field Resistance of Malayan Dwarf - D. H. Romney (page 15)
Assessing Field Resistance to Lethal Yellowing In Coconut Varieties - B.O. Been (page 16)
Ornamental Palms Resistant to Lethal Yellowing for Florida - H. M. Donselman (page 16)

SESSION VI - EMERGING DISEASE PROBLEMS IN PALM CULTURE

A Disease of Uncertain Etiology in Indonesia - P. Hunt (page 16)
Occurrence of
Fusarium oxysporum and Gliocladium vermoeseni on Phoenix canariensis in California - T. V. Feather, H. D. Ohr and D. E. Munnecke (page 16)
Current IRHO Research on Intraphloemic Flagellated Protozoa Associated with Marchitez in South America - M.Dollet (page 17)
Preliminary observations on the Control of Hartrot of Coconut by Insecticidal Application - V. T. Alexander (page 17)
Varietal Resistance Studies for Hartrot of Coconut - V. T. Alexander (page 17)
Flagellated Protozoans in Coconut Palms in the Southwest of Colombia - G. Martinez-Lopez, 0. Jimenez and E. Mena-Tascon (page 17)
Occurrence of Flagellated Protozoa in "Case 9" Disease of African Oil Palm in Colombia - R.E. McCoy & G. Martinez-Lopez (page 17)
Preliminary Studies on Lethal Palm Blight - J. K. Dunaway and D.G. Mead (page 18))
Pathogenicity Studies with
Pseudomonas aeruginosa - R.E.McCoy (page 18)
Cadang-Cadang Disease of Coconut: Evidence for a Viroid Etiology - J. W. Randles, J. S. Imperial, P. Palukaitis, T.Hatta & G. Boccardo (page 18)
Advances in Coconut Cadang-Cadang Research - A. Bigornia, E. P. Pacumbaba, E. P. Rillo and J. S. Imperial (page 18)
Study on the Origin of the Bunch Rot Disease Oil Palm (
Elaeis guineensis) in Ecuador - C. Garzón Flor and E. Mora Carrillo (page 19)
Determination of the Causal Agent of Spear Rot of Oil Palm (
Elaeis guineensis) in Ecuador - C. Garzón Flor and M. Figueroa N. (page 19)
Research on the Etiology of Blast of Oil and Coconut Palms - M. Dollet (page 19)
Addresses of Meeting Registrants (page 20)